|Exterior of the Sanctuary Building|
as viewed from the southwest
While most of the 38 tau'im had just three openings, the northeastern tau on the middle level had five: one opening east to the Antechamber, one opening west to the adjoining tau, one to the Holy in the south, one to the winding ramp in the north (see below), and one to the tau above. This tau was entered each morning in order to open the Sanctuary doors. First, the Levi unlocked the small eastern door by kneeling down and putting his arm through a hole in the wall near the door and inserting the key into the lock from the inside. Once this door was unlocked, he entered the tau and then unlocked the southern door to the Holy whose lock was directly before him. Now in the Holy, he would remove the bolts and open the keyed locks of the Sanctuary’s inner set of doors and swing them open and then repeat the procedure for the outer doors. Outside this tau’s northern door was a 6-cubit ladder leading down to the foot of the winding ramp at the floor of the Courtyard.
North of the 5-cubit (7½-foot) thick wall around the tau'im was a gap, 3 cubits (4½ feet) wide, which housed the winding ramp. A ramp began here at the floor of the Courtyard in front of the bottom, northeast tau and rose due west to the roof of the top, northwest tau. To the north of the ramp was another 5-cubit wall, equal in height to the top of the tau'im, which acted as a protective fence for those walking on the ramp.
Upon reaching the top of the winding ramp one would find himself on the roof of the top, northwest tau. Like all accessible roofs, those of the tau'im had a fence around their perimeter for safety. From here one would walk south along the roofs of the western tau'im to the southwest corner of the Sanctuary Building. In the south, corresponding to the winding ramp in the north, was a 3-cubit space called the Place of Drainage Water. Rainwater which drained off the roofs of the Sanctuary and tau'im was directed to a pool of water here. To the south of the Place of Drainage Water was a 5-cubit wall like that of the winding ramp, added both for symmetry and support.
Starting at the southwest corner of the Sanctuary Building was a ramp which rose due east from the roof of the top, southwest tau up to the door of the second story of the Sanctuary. All the dimensions of the second story — height, width, and length — matched those of the first level. The interior was similarly decorated with gold plating and carvings. Opinions vary as to what may have been stored there, from vessels of the Tabernacle to sacred writings.
Above the Holy of Holies were openings in the floor of the second story spaced an arm’s reach apart. When repair work had to be done in the Holy of Holies, workers would be lowered down through these openings in three-sided boxes so that they would not be able to see any more of the Holy of Holies than absolutely necessary for their work.
Immediately inside the door to the second story were two very thick vertical beams, 40 cubits (60 feet) tall, which were connected by rungs to form a sturdy ladder up to the roof of the Sanctuary Building. This roof was covered with iron tiles, 1 cubit (1½ feet) square, and protruding from these tiles were sharp iron spikes, 1 cubit tall, designed to keep birds from landing on the Sanctuary Building and soiling it.
It seems that you did not follow the assumption of the Ezras Kohanim that they 'beis hachalifos' was only as tall as the 'ta'im' and not 100 Amos tall as the UlamReplyDelete
Well, truth be told, I had never really given this much thought until you mentioned it, so thank you for the comment. I did look up the Ezras Kohanim to Middos 4:7 and he does, indeed, seem to conclude that the Beis Hachalifos only rose as tall as the tauim. This is also the opinion of R' Zalman Koren in his book The Beit Hamikdash (p.62-63) and he goes on to show how this can be derived from the language of Josephus as well. In my model I strive to follow the view of Tiferes Yisrael and so I went back and tried to find places where he might state, or at least hint to, his opinion on this matter. Consider what he writes in note 54 to his Temple diagram, "The outer wall of the Ulam measured 100 amos from north to south and it was as tall as the Heichal [100 amos]." The most obvious way to understand what he is saying here is that the wall was 100x100. Then in note 59 he says that "the Beis Hachalifos were within the space [חלל] of the Ulam at its northern and southern ends." He does not see them as separate structures standing to the north and south of the Ulam but simply areas within the interior of the Ulam. If Tiferes Yisrael actually held that the roof over the Beis Hachalifos was lower than 100 amos I firmly believe he would have made a point of stating this more explicitly, so I am still inclined to maintain that the eastern wall of the Ulam was a square measuring 100x100 amos.Delete
Hi. Do we know if the access holes around the 20 amah Kodesh part of the upper story were covered? I ask given that as we know there were no windows to the back part of the Heichal from above the Taim about 20 amos high to the 40 amos height of the 1st Floor. The Kodesh Kedoshim was dark. If there were no covers to the various access holes, then the windows to the top floor at the back 20 amos would surely have had light penetrate through the 2 ama thick openings thereby causing alot of light to enter the Kodesh Kedoshim. Or were these holes covered? The mishna says in Middos that they were open. Perhaps it is reffering to "open to" and not neceseraly open all the time. ?ReplyDelete
Thanks for your question. In the sefer Ezras Kohanim to Middos 4:5 he quotes Shiltei Giborim that the access holes were, as you point out, covered when not in use.ReplyDelete
Shekoyach! I appreciate that. I will look into that sefer.Delete
As for the windows in the Kodesh Hakodashim, Tiferes Yisrael to Middos 4:3 (end of §24) does mention that there were windows there.ReplyDelete
Very interesting! I again will look into that. Thanks a lot. Please tell me also so as I can use my real name, when I use my google account option it asks me to create a blog name. Is that all safe to use and only for this site?Delete
I'm not sure what it is asking you, so it might be a good idea to have someone look at it with you when you sign in. Hatzlachah!Delete
I will ask my Son who is the computer whizz :) Thanks . Yosef Ber MReplyDelete
Hi. I have created my Blog now. A new question that came to my mind. There are diagrams of the Heichal in various seforim that show the roof and the Ulam tapering to a point from all corners. I dont understand how or where they come to this given how Mishna Middos clearly states the dimensions starting from the 6 ama Otem all the way to the orev spikes at the top being 1 Ama (with R. Yehuda saying it was not included). Either way, it clearly states, Upper Flooring 1 ama, Fence 3 Amas and Crow Chaser 1 Ama! No where does it state additional roofing, triangular or straight! Could it be that Those who say that the the roof tapers upwards in all areas including the Ulam in a triangular way is indeed the 1 Ama Flooring before the fence? If so that would not make any sense!ReplyDelete
First, mazal tov on your blog! You should be zocheh to spread much knowledge about the Beis Hamikdash to all corners of the internet.ReplyDelete
About the roof, you are right that in Middos it does not say anything about it. Take a look at Tiferes Yisrael to Middos 4:6 in Boaz §4 where he writes about the sloping roof. It is based on Rashi in Moed Kattan.
OMAIN! Thank you so much! Like you, it is my passion. I have been learning Middos for years now. I am building a scale model of Bayis Sheini with push buttons and lights for the Lishgazim, gates, Mizbeach and Heichal and your site has helped me so much! I thank you so very much for your vast knowledge Bli ain hora. Yishar Koyach..I will look at the raya you gave me! Stay tuned for more questions as I have more :)Delete
Have a Good Shabbos and a Good Chodesh on Motzei Shabbos.
Yosef Ber M
Wow, a scale model has been a goal of mine as well. Much hatzlachah!ReplyDelete
OMAIN! Thank you. Do you know where there is a raya for the azara having columns / pillars around before the walls? I have looked into Antiquities it doesnt mention columns unless I am missing it. I do see columns mentioned for Har HaBayis, specifically for the Stoa Portico south of Hordus's extension but not for the Azara or Ezras Noshim. I can imagine that the Ezras Noshim could have had Columns to support the Womens Balconies. I looked into Melachim 1 and I cant see anywhere where it states columns to around the Heichal building itself. Many models both 3D and physical show columns all around the azara. Any ideas? Thanks :)Delete
Sure, check out Tiferes Yisrael Diagram #18, and to Tamid 1:3 #43, and Josephus Wars V 5:2.Delete
THANKS SO MUCH!!!! I have looked in Sefaria - Tamid and Bartenura meforeish.. I never knew!!!! Baruch Hashem!!!!!ReplyDelete